Syllabus - master of education (m.e.d)

Ordinances & Syllabus 2012-13


1.     The Master of Education (M.Ed.) programme is meant for candidates desirous of pursuing post-graduate programme in education. Besides preparing teacher educators, it also aims at preparing educational administrators, supervisors and researchers.
2.     The M.Ed. programme would comprise theoretical courses including specialized courses in the discipline of education and related practical / field work including exposure to and training in a teacher education institution. In addition, research work in the form of a dissertation would form an essential part of the programme. Depending on the actual design and declared objectives, the programme provides opportunities for students to extend as well as deepen their knowledge and understanding of education, specialize in selected areas including Teacher Education and also acquire related research skills.
3.     Only institutions running B.Ed. programme are eligible to offer M.Ed. course except University Departments which may not be directly running a B.Ed. programme.

Duration of Course :
1.     An examination for the Degree of Master of Education in theory shall be held annually in the month of April and Dissertation in the month of June / July or on such date/s and such place/s as may be fixed by the Vice-Chancellor.

Eligibility :
2.     The examination shall be open to any person, who:
a)     has obtained at least 55% marks in B.Ed. degree from  GNDU, Amritsar or  from any other University recognized as equivalent there to are eligible for M.Ed. admission.
b)     has the reservation for SC/ST/OBC and other categories shall be as per the rules of the central Government/ State Government, whichever is applicable. There shall be relaxation of 5% marks in favour of SC/ST/OBC categories of candidates.
c)     has undergone the course of training for the degree of Master of Education for one academic year in a college affiliated to the Guru Nanak Dev University for M.Ed. Course.
d)     has passed any other examinations recognized as equivalent there to from any other University/Institution.
e)     has his name submitted to the Registrar by the Principal of the College and produces a certificate signed by the Principal of having not less than 75% of the full course of lectures delivered to his class, provided that a deficiency upto 5% in the number of lectures may be condoned, for special reasons by the Principal.
f)     has passed house examination with atleast 40% mark in aggregate or 30% marks in individual paper/s.

3.     According to the schedule, every candidate shall pay such fees to the University as the Syndicate may prescribe from time to time.

Medium of Examination and Papers:
4.     The medium of examination for all papers including dissertation shall be English/Punjabi/Hindi.
5.            The examination shall consist of:

PART –A :  Foundation Courses

Paper                 Title                                                                Contact     Sessional    Terminal       Total
Paper-I       Education as a Field of  Study                              6                20               80              100                 

Paper -II       Learner and the Learning Proces                      6                20               80              100     
Paper-III       Methodology of Educational
                     Research & Statistics                                            6                20               80              100 
Paper IV          Educational Technology  & 
                       ICT in Education                                                   6                20               80              100                 

Paper-V             Dissertation                                                      6                40               60                100                

PART-B:   Specialization – Paper VI and VII

Options:           (Choose one group from the following)
Group A       Title                                                           Contact     Sessional    Terminal       Total
Educational Administration and Supervision            6                20               80              100                     

Education Planning
and Economics of Education                                       6                20               80                100 
Group B       Title                                                           Contact     Sessional    Terminal       Total                                                                                             hrs
Guidance and Counseling                                            6                20               80              100                    

Inclusive Education                                                         6                20               80              100  

Group C       Title                                                           Contact     Sessional    Terminal       Total                                                                                              hrs
Statistical Methods for Data Analysis                           6                20               80              100                    

Educational Measurement and Evaluation                 6                20               80    100                    
Group D       Title                                                           Contact     Sessional    Terminal       Total                                                                                              hrs               
Curriculum Development                                               6                20               80              100   

                 Teacher Education                                          6                20               80              100  

Total                                                                                   42              160             540             700

PART-C: Field Experiences (Assessment on five point rating scale)

6.     There shall be six periods for every paper per week for theory and two periods per week for sessional work / practical. A week shall have six working days.
7.     a)     Each theory paper shall carry 80 marks and shall be of three hours duration.
b)     In case of theory papers the sessional work shall be of 20 marks, assessed through tests, assignments and project work (field based)/psychological tests (analysis and interpretations) as detailed in the respective papers.
c)     The statement of sessional work shall be sent to the controller of examination.
8.     A) The dissertation shall be a core paper for all students carrying 100 marks and each student is required to select one topic for dissertation from the area of specialization under the guidance of a faculty member. Dissertation will be evaluated by both internal and external examiners (40 marks for sessional work and 60 marks for Terminal work). The sessional work will be evaluated by the internal examiner (40 marks) and terminal score will be awarded by the internal & external examiner jointly.
(i)     Every candidate/s shall submit a dissertation on an educational problem under the guidance and supervision of the faculty, Department of the University/Institute/College.
(ii)    The last date/s for application regarding the topics of dissertation along with the Synopsis and  the dissertation to reach the Registra’s office shall be as under:
·      Last date/s for submission of applications regarding the topic of dissertation along with the Synopsis shall be Nov. 10th of the year preceding the examinations.
·      Last date/s for submission of dissertation shall be May 31st. Under ordinary circumstances extension after 31st May will not be granted. However, one month extension under extraordinary circumstances without late fee may be granted by the Dean A.A. and S.W. G.N.D.U, Amritsar. This extension will be granted under specific reasons to be recorded by the Principal of the Institution as well as the supervisor of the candidate/s.
(iii)   When a candidate/s has failed in the examination but has obtained pass marks in the dissertation, the dissertation marks may be carried forward at his option to two subsequent years without fresh assessment of the dissertation. After two years the candidate/s may revise the dissertation and resubmit it for fresh assessment.
(iv)   Every candidate/s shall be examined in viva-voce on his/her dissertation.

        B)    Field Experiences mentioned below shall be assessed on five point rating scale (A-Excellent, B-Very Good, C-Good, D-Satisfactory, E-Poor):

(i)     Performance in teaching B.Ed. classes during the session.
(ii)    Performance in supervisory duties during the micro/composite discussion lessons
and school teaching practice.
(iii)   Performance in co-curricular activities in the college.
(iv)   Performance in survey/social work/voluntary services during the session.
(v)    Performance in best practices of Teacher Education Institution by way of
College functions/Excursions/Educational tours/Visits etc.

Qualifying marks and Re-appear
9.     a)     The minimum number of marks required to pass the examination shall be 40%  in each paper separately including dissertation, provided that candidates taking one or more additional papers under ordinance 12 infra shall be required to secure at-least 40%  marks to pass in that paper/s.
b)     A candidate/s who fails/remains absent in one paper only but has passed all the remaining
b)     A candidate/s who fails/remains absent in one paper only but has passed all the remaining papers, shall be permitted to appear in that paper only in next two consecutive examinations-one in the supplementary examination and the other in the annual examination. If he/she passes that paper in either of these examinations, he/she shall be deemed to have passed the examination.

Declaration of result and classification of division 
10.      Four weeks after the completion of Examinations or as is possible, the Registrar shall publish a list (gazette) of candidate/s who took the examinations. Each successful candidate/s shall receive with his degree, a certificate stating the division in which the candidate has passed.
11.      Successful candidates who obtain 70% or above shall be placed in the first division with distinction, those who obtain 60% or more of aggregate marks shall be placed in the first division, those who obtain 50% but below 60% shall be placed in second division; and all below 50% shall be placed in the third division.

Additional Paper and Improvement of Division 
12.       A person who has already passed M.Ed. examination shall be allowed to appear in one or more options other than the one he/she has already passed as additional option(s) of the M.Ed. examination and for the purpose of determining consistently good academic record, the marks obtained by him/her in the additional options may be substituted for the marks in the option (s) already passed by him/her towards aggregate to the best advantage of a person.
13.       A person who has passed M.Ed. examination from Guru Nanak Dev University in third division shall have two chances to improve his/her division. For this purpose he/she may be permitted to reappear in all or two or more papers in which his/her score is less than 55%. Improvement is permitted within five years of his obtaining third division. A candidate/s allowed to re-appear under this ordinance shall have the option either to submit the dissertation afresh or may get his previous marks in dissertation carried forward. The result of such a candidate/s shall be declared only if he improves the division and this fact shall be stated in his/her degree.
14.       A candidate who has already passed his/her M.Ed. examination in the second division in the first attempt, with less than 55% marks, shall be allowed to reappear in one, two or more papers in which his performance is less than 55% to enable him to make this overall aggregate 55% or more. For this purpose, he shall be given-
1.      Two chances to improve his/her previous performance if he has not availed of any chance before or
2.      One more chance to improve his/her previous performance if he/she has availed of one chance under ordinances pertaining to improvement of division; provided he/she completes the examination within a period of five years from the date of passing the examination in the first instance subject to the following conditions:
i)          Such  candidate/s will have to pay fee as for the whole examination.
2.       Vision derived from different schools of thought and their educational implications:
a. Idealism     b. Naturalism c. Pragmatism   d. Existentialism
3.       Critical analysis of thoughts of great educators like Gandhi ji, Tagore, Sri Aurobindo and John Dewey with reference to aims, curriculum, text books, teaching learning pedagogy, class-room environment, assessment, role of teacher and discipline

Changing Socio-cultural context of Education
1.       Social purposiveness of education
2.       a.  Constitutional provisions of education with special reference to SC, ST, Women and Rural population.
b. Education as related to social equality and equality of educational opportunities
3.       a.  Social change: Meaning and Nature, Constraints and Factors (Caste, Ethnicity, Language, Class,
Religion and Regionalism) of social change in India
b.  Social stratification and social mobility

Changing Political context of Education: School Context
1.       Dynamic relationship of education with political process
2.       a.  Changing role of personnel in school management- teachers, headmasters and administrators
b.  Total Quality Management in education
3.       a. Teacher’s autonomy and academic freedom
b. Role of State and Centre: need for a National system of education

Support System of Education
1.       Teacher Education: Vision and issues as reflected in NCFTE(2009)
2.       Role of different stakeholders in school education-media, use of technology, NGOs and family
3.       Principles and guidelines in organizing the support system

Sessional Work (Tests/Practicals/Projects)                                                : 20 Marks

The students may undertake any one of the following activities:
•         Readings of original texts of Rabindranath Tagore/M.K. Gandhi/Sri  Aurobindo/John Dewey and presentations on  various innovative concepts in the context of teaching-learning in schools followed by group discussion.
•         Assignments based on self-study on identified themes such as policy perspectives and status of education of socio- economically disadvantaged children of India/of a particular State, vision of school education in India, process of  socialisation of the child, critical analysis of the ways in which schooling, teaching- learning and curriculum contribute to social inequality, young children and social policy and presentation in a seminar followed by discussion.
•         Visit to a rural/tribal school, observation of activities and preparation of a reflective diary and interaction in a group.

1.     Banrs, J.A. (1996), Cultural diversity and education: Foundations curriculum and teaching (4th ed.) Boston: Alynand, Becon.
2.     Beyer, L.E. (Ed.) (1996) Creating democratic classrooms: The struggle to integrate theory and Practice. New York: Teachers College Press.
3.     Broudy, H.S. (1977) Types of knowledge and purposes of education. In R.C. Anderson, R.J., Spiro and W.E. Montanaque (eds) Schooling and the acquisition of knowledge (PP. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
4.     Bruner, J.S. (1996), The Culture of education. Cambridge, M.A.: Harward University Press.
5.     Bruubacher, John S.; (1969) Modern Philosophies of education, Tata McGraw-Hill, Publishing Company Pvt LTD, New Delhi.
6.     Butchvarov, P. (1970) The Concept of knowledge. Evanston, Illinois, North Western University Press.
7.     Dearden R. F. (1984). Theory and practice in Education. Routledge K Kegan & Paul.
8.     Debra Heyes, Martin Hills, Pam Chistie and Bob Lingard (2007) Teachers and schooling: Making a Difference, Allen and Unwin, Australia.
9.     Delors, Jacques, et al; (1996). Learning: The Treasure within report of the international commission on education for 21st century, UNESCO.
10.  Dewey, J. (1916/1977): Democracy and Education: An introduction to the philosophy of education. New York: Macmillan.
11.  Freire, P. and Shor, I. (1987). A Pedagogy of liberation. London, Macmillan Education.
12.  Freire, Paulo (1970). Pedagogy of the oppressed. New York: Continuum.
13.International Encyclopedia of Education. (1994) 2nd edition. Vol.10. Perganon Press. 9
14.  Matheson, David (2004). An Introduction to the study of education (2nd edition). David Fulton Publish.
15.  MHRD, (1992), Programme of action. Govt. of India, New Delhi.
16.  MHRD, Gov. of India (1992), National policy on education (revised) New Delhi.
17.  Naik, J.P. (1975) Equality, quality and quantity: The elusive triangle of Indian education, Allied Publications, Bombay.
18.  NCERT (2005). National curriculum framework, New Delhi.
19.  NCTE(2009) National Curriculum Framework for Teacher Education, New Delhi.
20.  Palmer, Joy A, (2001). Fifty Modern thinkers on education: From Piaget to the present Day. Routledge Flamer. London. USA. Canada.
21.  Peters, R.S. (1967), The Concept of education, Routledge, United Kingdom.
22.  Peters, R.S. (ed), (1975). The Philosophy of education. Oxford University Press, London.
23.  Slatterry, Patrick and Dana Rapp. (2002). Ethics and the foundations of education- Teaching Convictions in a postmodern world. Allyn & Bacon.
24.  Wall, Edmund (2001). Educational theory: philosophical and political Perspectives. Prometheus Books.
25.  Winch, C. (1986). Philosophy of human learning, Routledge, London.10
26.  Winch, C. (1st edition). (1996). Key Concepts in the philosophy of education. Routledge.

Learner  and  the Learning  Process
Time 3 hrs.                                                                                                                                                                   M.Marks: 100
                                                                                                                                Terminal:  80
                                                                                                                                                Sessional:  20
Note:      The question paper will consist of five units. The paper setter will set two questions from each unit and each question will carry 16 marks. The candidate will attempt one question from each unit.

On completion of this course the students will be able to:
·      understand the dynamics of individual development.
·         understand the dynamics of group behaviour.
·         understand the concept of mental health and adjustment.
·         describe the dynamics of social behaviour.

Dynamics of Individual Development
1.       Concept of Human Development, Understanding the process of individual development in a social context: development of knowledge, understanding, skills, competencies
2.       Importance of individual differences, concept of Multiple Intelligences. (Gardner, Sternberg), concept of Emotional Intelligence and its impact on learning
3.       Determinants of personality development of an individual-biological, socio-cultural, personality assessment
Group Dynamics and Individual
1.       Interrelation and interdependence between individual and group in classroom and social context
2.       Meaning and types of groups, compliance and conformity in relation to effective group functioning in school and classroom context
3.       Socio-emotional climate in classroom, the conditions facilitating effective learning, school violence and conflicts among groups, conflict resolution techniques

Mental health and Adjustment
1.       Concept of adjustment and mental health, characteristics of a mentally healthy person, school and classroom practices for enhancing adjustment and mental health among the students and teachers
2.       Concept of stress- sources of stress, categories of stressors, and strategies of coping with stress, mechanisms of adjustment, types of adjustment problems among students
3.       Frustration, conflict and anxiety – meaning and management

Understanding the process of learning
1.       Learning as construction of knowledge, learning as cognitive and socio- culturally mediated process: meta cognition, socio- cultural mediation, experiential learning, cognitive negotiability, understanding constructive nature of knowing, doing and practising in classroom/ field, in community setting; critical appraisal of views of PIAGET, BRUNER and VYGOTSKY with reference to multiple school contexts of India
2.       Motivation in learning: intrinsic and extrinsic motivation; approaches to motivation- humanistic; cognitive (attribution theory –WEINER)
3.       Cognition and Learning: Cognitive processes: perception, attention, memory, development of concept, logical reasoning, critical thinking and problem solving

Dynamics of Social Development
1.       Nature of socio-cultural environment :- physical, economic conditions, cultural practices
2.       Individual and his/her social understanding, social influence, perception and imitation
3.   Social identity its interrelationship with social environment, Impact on school/ classroom practices and achievement
Sessional Work (Tests/Practicals/Projects)                                                        : 20 Marks
Practical Note Book                                                                                                                             : 05 Marks
Experiments/Tests                                                                                                                              : 15 Marks

TESTS                                                      EXPERIMENTS      
Test of Creativity                                    Learning Curve          
Leadership Style                                      Transfer of Training 
Verbal Test of Intelligence                     Sociometry 
Self Concept Scale                                  Free Association        
Adjustment Inventory                                 
Personality Inventory                                   

1.       Ambron, S.R (1981) Child development, Holt, Rincehart and Winston, New York.
2.       Anderson, J.R. (1983). Rules of the mind. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum
3.       Anderson, J.R. (1983). The architecture of cognition. Cambridge, MA: Harvard  University Press.
Atkinson, Richard C., (1983). Introduction to Psychology, Harcount Brace  Joranovich Inc., New 
4.       Bandura.A (1977). Social Learning Theory. Cliff.N.J; Prentice Hall.
5.       Barry and Johnson (1964) Classroom Group Behaviour, New York: Macmillan.
6.       Barry and Johnson (1964). Classroom Group Behaviour. New York: Macmillan.
7.       Bhargava, Mahesh (1964). Introduction to Exceptional Children. Sterling Publishers Pvt Ltd., New Delhi.
8.       Bickhard, M.H. (1992). How Does the Environment Affect the Person? In L.T. Winegar,
9.       Bickhard, M.H., Chrisopher, J.C. (1994). The Influence of early Experience on Human Personality Development. New Ideas In Psychology.
10.     Bourne, L.E. (1985). Psychology: Its Principles and Meaning. Holt, Rinehart and  Winston, New York.
11.     Bower, G.H. and Hilgard, E.R. (1981) Theories of learning. Prentice Hall, Inc. Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey.
12.     Brown, R. (2000). Group Processes: Dynamics Within and Between Groups. ( 2nd Edition). Blackwell Publishers.
13.     Bruner, J.S. (1990) Acts of meaning. Cambridge, M.A.: Harvard University Press.
14.     Bruner, R.F. (1978). Psychology applied to teaching. Boston: Houghton Mifflin.
15.     Christian, Jyoti (1984). Classroom Group Dynamics. Meerut: Anu Books.
16.     Cole, R. (1997). The Moral Intelligence of the Children. London: Bloomsbury.
17.     Cruickshank, W.M. (1980). Psychology of Exceptional Children and Youth. N.J. Prentice Hall.
18.     Dandapani, S. (2001) Advanced educational psychology, (2nd edition), New Delhi, Anmol publications pvt Ltd.
19.     Dececo, J.P. (1977). The Psychology of learning and instruction, Prentice Hall, Delhi.
20.     Dutt, Suresh (1997). Society and Education. Anmol Publications.
21.     Eason, M.E. (1972). Psychological foundation of education, N.Y. Holt, Rinehart and Winston, Inc.
22.     Erickson, E.H. (1968). Identity, Youth and Crisis. New York: W.W. Norton.
23.     Gardner, H. (1983) frames of Mind: The theory of multiple intelligence. New ork: Basic Books.
24.     Grammage, P. (1990) Teacher and pupil: some socio-psychological principles and applications (3rd Edition) Illinois: Scott. Pressman Little, Brown Higher  Education.
25.     Guilford, J.P. (1967). Nature of Human Intelligence, New York: McGraw Hill.
26.     Klausmeier, Herbert J (1985). Educational Psychology. Harper and Row, Pub. New York.
26.     Klausmeier, Herbert J (1985). Educational Psychology. Harper and Row, Pub. New York.
27.     Kohlberg, L., & Gilligan, C. (1974). The Adolescent as a Philosopher: The Discovery of the Self in a Post- Conventional World. In H.V. Kraemer (ed) Youth and Culture: A Human Development Approach. Monterey,  CA: Brooks/Cole.
28.     Kohlberg, L., Levine, C., & Hewer, A. (1983). Moral Stages: A Current Formulation and a Response to Critics. New York: S. Karger.
29.     Lieber, C.M. (2002) Partners in learning: from conflict to collaboration. Cambridge, M.A, Educators for Social responsibility.
30.     Lingren, H.C. (1980). Educational Psychology in the Classroom (Sixth ed.) New York: Oxford University Press.
31.     Maslow, A.H. (1970). Motivation and Personality (2nd edition). New York: Harper & Row.
32.     Meyers, D.G. Social Psychology. Tata-Mcgraw Hill. VIII Edition.
33.     Miranda, E. (1990). Teaching Schools and Society (1st edition) Falmer Press.
34.     NCERT (2005) National curriculum framework, New Delhi.
35.     NCTE (2009) National Curriculum Framework for Teacher Education, New  Delhi.
36.     Newell, A. & Simon, H.A. (1972). Human problem solving. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.
37.     Owen, Steven V, Blount, S. Parker and Mascow, Hoenry (1978). Educational Psychology: An Introduction. Little Brown and Company.
38.     Piaget, J. (1999) Judgment and reasoning in the child. London: Routledge.
39.     Pintrich, P.R.; and Schunk, D.H. (1996). Motivation in education: theory, research and applications. Englewood Cliffs, N.J. Merill.
40.     Segal, J.W. Chipman, S.F., & Glaser, R. (1985). Thinking and learning skills: Relating Instruction to Basic Research. (Vol. I). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
41.     Sekav, S.V.K. (2005). Education Society and Pedagogy. Arise Publishers and Distributors. New Delhi.
42.     Smith, Ronald E, Sarason, I.G. and Sarason, Barbara, R (1982). Psychology: TheFrontiers of Behaviour. Harper and Row Pub., New York.
43.     Social Process in Learning Parents, Peers and Teachers Educational Psychology. Anita Woufolk (2004).
44.     Srivastava, G.N.P. (1986) Recent Approaches to Personality Study. APRC, Agra. Wendy Conklin (2006). Instructional Strategies for Diverse Learners- Practical
45.     Srivastava, G.N.P. (1995). Recent Trends in Educational Psychology. Agra Psycho Research Cell, Agra, India.
46.     Strategies for Successful Classrooms. Shell Educational Publishing.
47.     Synder, C.R. & Shane J. Lopez (2007). Positive psychology. SAGE Publications. U.K.
48.     Vygostsky. L. (1986) Thought and language (A. Kazulin, Trans). Cambridge, M.A.: MIT Press.

Methodology  of  Educational  Research & Statistics
Time 3 hrs.                                                                                                                                                             M.Marks: 100
                                                                                                                                                Terminal:   80
                                                                                                                                                  Sessional:  20
Note: i)     The question paper will consist of five units. The paper setter will set two questions from each unit except unit III and each question will carry 16 marks. The candidates will attempt one question from each unit.
ii)     For unit III: One question will be set from unit III & second question from any of the units IV & V.
iii)     The candidates are allowed to use calculators.
On completion of this course, the students will be able to:
1.       describe the nature, purpose, scope, areas, and types of research in education.
2.       explain the characteristics of quantitative, qualitative and mixed research.
3.       select and explain the method appropriate for a research study.
4.       conduct a literature search and develop a research proposal.
5.       explain a sampling design appropriate for a research study.
6.       explain tool, design and procedure for collection of data.
7.       explain the importance of documentation and dissemination of researches in education.
8.       represent the data graphically.
9.       analyse the data and draw useful inferences.

Research in Education: conceptual issues
1.       Meaning, purposes and emerging areas in educational research, kinds of educational research : basic, applied and action research and their characteristics
2.      Planning the research study: sources of research problem, identification and conceptualization of research problem: Statement of the problem, delineating and operationalzing the variables
3.      a)  Review of the literature- purposes and resources
b)  Formulation of hypothesis
Quantitative – Qualitative Methods of Research
1.       Quantitative Methods: Types of research: survey studies, descriptive studies, co-relational studies,  developmental studies, comparative studies, causal comparative studies, classification by time: cross-       sectional, and longitudinal studies
2.       Experimental Research:
a)  Nature of experimental research, variables in experimental research- independent, dependent and 
confounding variables
b)  Experimental Research Designs: Single group pre test, post tests design, pre test- post test control
group design, post- test only control group design and factorial design. Quasi-experimental design:
non- equivalent comparison group design, time series design
c)  Internal and external validity of results in experimental research
3.         Qualitative Method :
a)  Qualitative research: Meaning, steps and characteristics- phenomenology, ethno-methodology,
naturalistic inquiry
b)  Historical Research- Meaning, significance, steps, primary and secondary sources of information,
external and internal criticism of the source

Methods of Data Collection
1.       Sampling: Concept of population and its types, sample, sampling unit , sampling frame, sample size, sampling error, techniques:
a)    Random sampling techniques: Simple random sampling, systematic sampling, stratified random   sampling, cluster sampling and multi- stage sampling.
b)    Non- Random sampling techniques: Convenience sampling, purposive sampling , quota sampling, snowball sampling.
2.       Types of tools and techniques and their uses: questionnaire, rating scale, attitude scale
3.       a)    Collection, treatment and interpretation of data
b)    Formulation of conclusion and generalization